The main aim of Art being used as an activist tool is to fight back any political and social injustice by challenge them. These injustices can vary from raising awareness about the people living in poor living condition in underdeveloped countries, environmental concerns, immigration issues and so on and so forth, in simple terms an Art Activist seeks to address the collapsing states that construct an ideal modern society. There are many opinions regarding Activist Art, some Critics state that Activist Art in not an artistically high level due to the reason that the message behind the Activist Artwork is replaced with artistic quality, while others Critics state that high aesthetics quality can deviate from the political and activist aims of Activist Art, turning it into a spectical which defeats the purpose (Boris Groys, 2014).
Activist Art is highly associated with Feminist Art due to its activist nature against social and political injustices. Feminist Art flourished with the second wave Feminism in the late 1960s mostly in the United States and United Kingdom. The Feminist Art Movement began producing art around that time, tackling themes such as the female body, life experiences as a women, and the female’s domestic role, themes tackled by female artists such as Eva Hesse and Louise Bourgeois, who did not self-identify with Feminist Art. The Feminist Artists of the second wave later started to abandon these themes, focusing more on proto-feminist art, producing art that asked for gender equality (Tracy DiTolla, 2016. a .).
In 1972, Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro created the installation titled “Womanhouse” which consisted of an actual house in Hollywood, as the result of the “Feminist Art Program (FAP) at California Institute for the Arts”. The project also involved a 21 year old female student who renovated the house, as it was listed for demolition, before being taken by the project. Then they installed a sculpture of a woman stuck inside a closet full of linen sheets and fried eggs that looked like beasts on the walls and ceiling of the kitchen. The project wanted to address the indoctrinated relationship between the woman and the house, challenging the idea of the female out of traditional domestic roles (Tracy DiTolla, 2016. b .)
Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro, 1972, Womanhouse. [Photograph].
Jumping to 1989, we see the emergence of the famous Feminist Artist Group the Gorilla Girls. The poster titled “THE ADVANTAGES OF BEING A WOMAN ARTIST” was one of the group’s earliest work with their typical use of humour to address the more serious issues, such as discrimination in the art world itself, addressing the disadvantages that woman artists still had to face in the 1980s in a tongue-in-cheek way. The poster displays a list of “advantages” which in reality are disadvantages, to point out the bias of the art world against the female artists, as Lee Krasner better stated;
“The world of High Art, the kind that gets into Museums and history books, is run by a very small group of people. Our posters have proved over and over again that these people, no matter how smart or good-intentioned, have been biased against women and artists of colour.” (Tracy DiTolla, 2016. b .).
Gorilla Girls, 1989, The Advantages of Being a Woman Artist. [Digital Art].
In the more Contemporary scene of Activist Art, we see the political artist Ai Wei Wei who is mostly known for his political artworks questioning the actions of the Chinese Government. In 2008 Ai Wei Wei blamed the Chinese Government, regarding the collapsed Government constructed schools during the Sichuan earthquake, which killed over 5,000 students. His installation listed the names of the children killed, demanding the Government to take accountability regarding the tragedy. This caused him to be arrested for 81 days, as well as his passport being held for 4 years, making him unable to leave the country (Dominique Bonessi, 2016).
Having moved to Berlin in 2016, Ai Wei Wei witnessed the refugee crisis that hit Germany as well as the rest of Europe. He addressed this issue by hanging up to 14,000 life jackets , that were left on the shores of Greece by the refugees, on the columns of the German Concert Hall in Berlin (Dominique Bonessi, 2016).
Stefanie Loos/Reuters, 2016, Workers build up an installation by Chinese artist Ai Wei Wei with life jackets left by migrants on Greek beaches on columns at the Konzerthaus Concert Hall during the 66th Berlinale International Film Festival in Berlin on Feb. 13, 2016. [Photograph].
In another attempt to address the refugee crisis the Artist wrapped thermal blankets ,which are given to refugees the moment they entered any shore, to warm up, around his 12 sculptures, representing the 12 Chinese Zodiac animals that where exhibited in front of the National Gallery’s Trade and Fair Palace. There was no direct connection between the statues and wrapping them in thermal blankets, as it was more of a solidarity symbol towards the victims, as the Artist himself stated;
“A Gesture in defending the dignity of refugees.” (Dominique Bonessi, 2016).
Anon, 2016, People walk past the ‘Circle of Animals / Zodiac Heads’ sculptures by Chinese artist Ai Wei Wei in front of the Trade Fair Palace run by the National Gallery on Feb. 5, 2016 in Prague, Czech Republic. [Photograph].
In conclusion, I do believe that Art has the power to affect culture and therefore can be used as a powerful tool by activist artists to address the injustices around us, to aim for a better society that delivers equality to all minorities. If culture affects Art, then Art should have the same impact on culture, raising questions in a striking visual manner that might be easier for the viewer to relate to and change their views.
- Boris Groys, 2014. On Art Activism. [Online] Available at: <http://www.e-flux.com/journal/on-art-activism/> [Accessed 9th May 2017].
- Tracy DiTolla, 2016. a . Feminist Art. [Online] Available at: < http://www.theartstory.org/movement-feminist-art.htm> [Accessed 9th may 2017].
- Tracy DiTolla, 2016. b . Important Art and Artists of Feminist Art. [Online] Available at: < http://www.theartstory.org/movement-feminist-art-artworks.htm#pnt_2> [Accessed 9th may 2017].
- Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro, 1972 (image Online).Womanhouse . [Photograph] Available at: < http://www.slideshare.net/mholober/feminist-art-movement >[Accessed 9th may 2017].
- Gorilla Girls, 1989 (image Online). The Advantages of Being a Woman Artist. [Digital] Available at: < https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/5206/
The_Advantages_of_Being_a_Woman_Artist> [Accessed 9th may 2017].
- Dominique Bonessi, 2016. 5 times Ai Weiwei’s art has called attention to the refugee crisis. [Online] Available at: < http://www.pbs.org/newshour/art/5-times-ai-weiweis-art-has-called-attention-to-the-refugee-crisis/ > [Accessed 9th may 2017].
- Stefanie Loos/Reuters, 2016 (image Online). Workers build up an installation by Chinese artist Ai Weiwei with life jackets left by migrants on Greek beaches on columns at the Konzerthaus concert hall during the 66th Berlinale International Film Festival in Berlin on Feb. 13, 2016. [Photograph] Available at: < http://www.pbs.org/newshour/art/5-times-ai-weiweis-art-has-called-attention-to-the-refugee-crisis/> [Accessed 9th may 2017].
- Anon, 2016 (image Online). People walk past the ‘Circle of Animals / Zodiac Heads’ sculptures by Chinese artist Ai Weiwei in front of the Trade Fair Palace run by the National Gallery on Feb. 5, 2016 in Prague, Czech Republic. [Photograph] Available at: < http://www.pbs.org/newshour/art/5-times-ai-weiweis-art-has-called-attention-to-the-refugee-crisis/> [Accessed 9th may 2017].